The Dennison Watch Case Company

Last updated on June 12, 2022

This month I am starting to look for a new antique pocket watch for my collection. Actually, I am always looking for a new watch, not just this month. I try to add to my collection every month. February, I am covered. I added a beautiful antique single Albert pocket chain to my collection. It’s silver and perfect for the two antique pocket watches I already have in my collection. Now I am looking for a full hunter case pocket watch to add to my pieces. I think the next one should have a gold case in order to diversify the collection.

I have been looking online at antique hunter case pocket watches, as well as being gold, I want a case where the lid will snap open with a single press of the crown. Many of the pieces I have seen so far require a little assistance when opening the cover. I am going to be patient and wait for one which will open with a simple press. One thing I have noticed is that a lot of the cases are made by the Dennison Watch Case Company, so I have been doing my research and this is what today’s post is all about.

Aaron Lufkin Dennison

Aaron Lufkin Dennison was an American, born in Freeport, Maine in 1812. The son of a boot and shoemaker, Dennison was apparently a hard-working child. He earned pocket money from a variety of menial tasks. In 1830 he was apprenticed to a clockmaker, James Cary. 

At the age of 21, Dennison had completed his apprenticeship, declined the offer of a partnership with Cary and went to Boston to further his career. In 1834 he started his own business as a watch repairer. This only lasted two years before he joined Jones, Low & Ball as a watch repairer and learned about the English and Swiss methods of manufacturing.

Aaron Lufkin Dennison.
Aaron Lufkin Dennison

Watch manufacturing

In 1840, he was still repairing watches, however, he had begun to consider manufacturing his own watches. His plan was to make watches using interchangeable parts, rather than building each watch by hand. It took a few years for this idea to come to fruition. In 1849 he approached the company of Howard & Davis, with his idea of a mechanised manufacturing process for watches. Although Dennison was the only person with any knowledge of watchmaking, the offer was accepted and the business launched in 1850. The firm was called Dennison, Howard & Davis and a factory was built in Roxbury, Massachusetts.

Failure

Dennison travelled to England to acquire parts, knowledge and labour that was not available in America. On his return, he designed and constructed the machinery required to execute his plan. His first watch was a failure. It had a power reserve of eight days from a single mainspring barrel, but was it terribly inaccurate and unable to be sold. Dennison later admitted he had no ability as a machinist.

In 1852 the company hired a skilled machinist who rebuilt the machinery and a successful watch was made and sold. The company moved to a new factory in Waltham, Massachusetts in 1854, under the new name of the Boston Watch Company. Dennison remained with the company until it went bankrupt in 1857.

As a result of the bankruptcy, the company was split into two parts. Some of the machinery and skilled workforce returned to Roxbury and formed the Howard Watch Company. The buildings and immovable machinery were sold to a watch manufacturer by the name of Tracey Baker & Company. Dennison remained in Waltham, working for the new company as a superintendent. He remained there until 1861 when he was fired by the owner for meddling with other departments and neglecting his duties. Tracey Baker & Company and the factory in Waltham ended up becoming, after a few more mergers and renames, the Waltham Watch Company.

Birmingham, England

In 1864 Dennison set up another business, the Tremont Watch Company in Boston. His idea was to purchase the delicate components from Swiss manufacturers where labour costs were lower. The larger components he would produce in America. Dennison left a business partner in charge in America and moved to Zurich to oversee the Swiss operations. The Tremont Watch Company fell into financial difficulties in 1870 and failed. In 1871, Dennison moved to Birmingham, England, where he continued to be involved in watchmaking. In 1874, he identified a niche in the market for high-quality watch cases produced in large numbers and started a company. He patented many designs for air and watertight cases.

Originating from a small workshop on the side of the family home, the company was called Dennison, Wigley & Company and it grew to produce 100,000 high-quality watch cases per year. Dennison died in 1895, and he was succeeded in business by his son, Franklin Dennison. The company was renamed the Dennison Watch Case Company Ltd in 1905 and continued as a successful business until 1967. The Dennison Watch Case Company failed in February 1967 due to insolvency and the factory in Birmingham ceased production.

Dennison silver case.
Dennison silver case. © Atlam Watches

Dennison cases

The company made cases from different materials including silver, gold. filled-gold and rolled-gold. Filled gold must include at least 5% of the total weight of the item in pure gold. Rolled gold contains less than 5% of pure gold, but is many times thicker than simple gold plate. The thickness of the gold determines how long the item will last in normal use before the gold wears through and the base metal shows.

The Dennison Case Watch Company used specific grades to indicate how long the gold layer should last. A Sun grade indicated a case with layers of 14-carat gold, guaranteed to wear for 25 years. The Moon grade indicated layers of 10-carat gold, guaranteed to wear for 20 years. The Star grade indicated the outside of the case was a layer of 9-carat gold, guaranteed to wear for 10 years. The inside of the Star case, which naturally was subject to less wear, was electroplated with a gold plate to reduce costs. It appears that Dennison started using the Star, Moon and Sun marks at the start of the 20th century. The earliest examples of these cases that I can find have been from Waltham pocket watches, dated by serial number, to 1901. There was a separate trademark that included a star, moon and sun that was stamped on watch cases, including those made of nickel. In this instance, it didn’t indicate quality.

Dennison Star grade case.
Dennison Star grade case. © Atlam Watches

Dennison watches

In 1915, the Dennison Watch Case Company registered the brand name, Denco Watch Co. and launched its own line of watches.  Up until then, the company had concentrated on manufacturing watch cases. They supplied various watch companies, including Waltham UK. These were likely to be private label watches, made by another firm.  There is no indication that Dennison had any in house watchmaking capability. They simply would have purchased the completed and branded movement and inserted them into their own watch cases. The watches were certainly of good quality as they used, as a minimum, 15-jewel movements. However, watch production ceased at the start of World War II when the company started manufacturing military equipment for the British Royal Air Force.

Denco pocket watch.
Denco pocket watch. © The Vintage Wrist Watch Company

Legacy

Dennison tried and failed many times throughout his career and there are involvements with other businesses that I have left of this post for brevity. One thing is clear, he never gave up. He was perhaps overly ambitious and also difficult to work with, had he delegated tasks to others he may have been successful earlier. He certainly contributed much to the horological industry as pioneering work with machinery and interchangeable parts paved the way for the mechanisation of the industry and mass production. His greatest success remains the Dennison Watch Case Company.

A list of additional posts regarding antique watches can be found on the Guides page.

15 Comments

  1. David Race said:

    I have a Moon case watch which snaps open. I suspect it still works if properly serviced.
    It was handed down to me and I think it was made about 1900. Serial number 521253.
    the movement is American Waltham Traveler.
    I am thinking of taking it to a watchmaker for cleaning to see if it works.
    it is totally coincidental I saw this post today as I have never searched info on this watch before.

    October 8, 2021
    Reply
    • Jason said:

      Hi David,

      The Dennison Moon is a good quality case. You can date your watch using the Waltham serial number engraved on the movement using this website. This will give you an exact date for the watch. A watchmaker should be able to return it to good working order, which is worth the time, effort and cost for a timepiece with sentimental value. Thanks for commenting, Jason.

      October 9, 2021
      Reply
  2. Jacob said:

    Hi Jason,

    I have a Dennison Watch Case Co Ltd, Star case that has been serviced and now keeps time well!

    The serial number on the case is 767375 though I do know now after some reading that it’s the watch movement which is the important part for determining the age of the watch (which I’m trying to figure out).

    Upon opening the back, all I can see engraved is “15 Jewels”, “3 Adjustments” and “Swiss Made” but no serial number annoyingly!

    Could you please help/provide insight?

    Thanks,

    Jacob

    January 31, 2022
    Reply
    • Jason said:

      Hi Jacob,

      Watchmaking was a confusing world in those days. One source could make the components, another could assemble them and finally, a retailer could sell the finished product, claiming to be the watchmaker. The last thing the retailer wanted a customer to see on the movement, was a name other than theirs. Any mark that would identify the source of the movement will most likely be on the dial side of the movement where it is out of sight. Next time you get it serviced ask the watchmaker to photograph the movement from all sides. I hope this helps. Thanks for commenting, Jason.

      February 2, 2022
      Reply
  3. Eric Morton said:

    This is very interesting, thanks. I also have inherited a ‘Moon’ case which belonged to my great grandfather. It appears to work well. Can someone tell me how to set the hands please, and any other technical information, ie how long between winding would it be expected to last?
    Thanks again Eric.

    January 31, 2022
    Reply
  4. Maggie said:

    Hello 👋
    I have a Denison Watch Case Co. Item with a star moon and sun marks on it. Would you be able to tell me anything else about it please. 🤔

    April 1, 2022
    Reply
    • Jason said:

      Hi Maggie, the Star, Moon and Sun symbols were a trademark of Dennison’s from the early 20th century, these appeared on watch cases made of gold, silver and nickel. The word Star, Moon or Sun, indicated the quality of their gold-filled or gold plated cases. Are there any other markings on the case, such as hallmarks? Thanks for commenting, Jason.

      April 2, 2022
      Reply
  5. Richard Glover said:

    Hi Jason,
    I have inherited my great-grandfathers (1881-1961) Dennison.
    It is marked as ‘MOON’ with a case serial number of 730597.
    The movement shows ‘SS & Co’ with 3 triangles but appears to have no serial number.
    Is there any way of dating the watch? Could you tell me anything about the watch?
    Best Regards,
    Rich

    May 9, 2022
    Reply
    • Jason said:

      Hi Richard,
      I am aware of SS&C and Dennison. I’ll do some investigation and get back to you, probably on the weekend. Thanks for taking the time to read the article and commenting, Jason

      May 10, 2022
      Reply
    • Jason said:

      Hi Richard,
      The watch was made by Stauffer, Son & Co. They were a major Swiss watchmaker with a somewhat obscure history. The trademark you mention, “SS & Co with 3 triangles” was registered in 1886. This trademark was used for Stauffer’s highest quality watches. The watch case was made by Dennison who started using the ‘Moon’ trademark around 1901. This would suggest that the watch dates from the early 1900s when your great-grandfather would have been in his early twenties. I hope this information helps, Jason.

      May 15, 2022
      Reply
  6. Barry Dutton said:

    Hello
    I don’t know if anyone can answer my question..
    I have a Hunter pocket watch in silver date stamped Birmingham 1924 it’s a Dennison case, the movement I’ve know idea who made that it’s makes Swiss made with Sanders & Company on the dial..
    This watch doesn’t have a crystal or a bezel to fit one in, my question is should it have a crystal or did some not have a crystal. I am very cautious when opening the watch because it beautiful blue fingers fitted with nothing to protect them..

    Kind regards
    Barry

    May 22, 2022
    Reply
    • Jason said:

      Hi Barry,
      Sanders & Company were a London retailer associated with James Walker Ltd. They didn’t make watches, but sold them under their own brand. The watch should have a crystal to protect the blued steel hands. Check out RomanDial Watches they will be able to find a replacement crystal. I hope this helps, Jason

      May 24, 2022
      Reply
  7. Andrew Clennell said:

    Hi I have inherited a dennison case watch
    Serial number looks like 721275
    It is a Star
    Just had it serviced and working fine
    Could you tell me how old it is
    Or any information would be appreciated

    June 11, 2022
    Reply
    • Jason said:

      Hi Andrew,
      Dennison started using the Star, Moon and Sun marks around 1901. The company became Limited in 1905. If your case states Dennison Watch Case Co. Ltd, it will date from no earlier than 1905. There is no record of serial numbers, but it should be safe to assume they increment over time. I have a Criterion pocket watch with a Sun case, which I have tentatively dated to 1910c. The serial numbers are probably different on each type of case, Open vs Hunter. The only other way to date the watch would be from the movement. I hope this helps. Jason

      June 12, 2022
      Reply

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